Preventive Measures for Accidents

Preventive measures for accidents

The various measures to decrease the accident rates on roads may be divided into “3 – Es”.

(1) Engineering measures

(2) Enforcement measures

(3) Education measures

(1) Engineering Measures

The various engineering measures are :

(A) Road design

  • The geometric design features of the road such as sight distances, width of pavement, horizontal and vertical design details are checked and corrected.
  • Pavement surface characteristics like skid resistance values are checked and suitable maintenance steps taken to bring them up to the design standards.
  • Where necessary by-passes may be constructed to separate through traffic from local traffic. To minimize delay and conflicts at the intersections, it may be essential to design and construct grade separated intersections or flyovers.

(B) Road lighting

  • Proper road lighting can decrease the rate of accidents during night, due to poor visibility.
  • Lighting is particularly desired at intersections, bridge sites, etc.

(C) Preventive maintenance of vehicle

  • The braking system, steering and lighting arrangement of vehicles plying on the roads must be checked at suitable intervals and heavy penalties levied on defective vehicles.

(D) Before and after studies

  • The record of accidents and their patterns for different locations are maintained by means of collision and condition diagrams.
  • After making necessary improvements in design, it is necessary to collect the record of accidents ‘before and after’ the introduction of preventive measures to study their efficiency.

(2) Enforcement measures

  • Proper traffic control devices like signs, markings or channelizing island may be installed wherever found necessary.
  • To lay down rules for parking of vehicles.
  • To prescribe minimum standard for the inspection and maintenance of vehicles.
  • Signals may be re-designed or new signal system may be introduced if necessary.
  • The drivers should be tested for vision and reaction time at suitable time intervals.
  • To prescribe speed limits and to provide for punishments for their infringements.
  • To introduce penalties of fine, imprisonment, endorsements on licences, for careless driving.
  • To control the loading and unloading of goods by the curb side.
  • The transport authorities should be strict in testing and issuing license to drivers of public transport vehicles and taxies.
  • To stipulate age limits for drivers.

(3) Education measures

  • To educate the road users for the various precautionary measures to use the roadway facilities with safety.
  • Refresher courses for drivers can serve to educate them on the needs of traffic safety.
  • School children should be imparted the necessary training in the school about the rules of the road and related safety aspects.
  • Road users should be impressed on what should and what should not be done.
  • The passengers and pedestrians should be taught the rules of the road, correct manner of crossing, etc.
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