PIEV Theory : 4 Easy Concepts


The Full Form of PIEV

PIEV means Perception, Intellection, Emotion and Volition respectively. That means total reaction time of driver is divided into 4 parts.

  1. Perception
  2. Intellection
  3. Emotion
  4. Volition

Total Reaction time = Perception time + Intellection time + Emotion time + Volition time


What is PIEV Theory ?

PIEV time is the reaction time of the driver. Time taken between the instant object is visible to the driver and the instant brakes are effectively applied is called PIEV time or Reaction time of driver.

In this process first of all, when driver sees any object, a message was sent to the brain, the brain understand the situation and take final decision.

Lets understand the concept by simple diagram as shown below.


PIEV Theory Diagram

PIEV Theory Diagram

1. Perception time

When driver instantly see any objects, so he/she receives the sensations by the eyes or ears and transmits the message to the brain through the nervous system & spinal cord. This time is called perception time.

2. Intellection time

When brain receives the message, it understands the situation, comparing the different thoughts and registering new sensations. This time is called intellection time.

3. Emotion time

Emotion time of driver is the time elapsed during emotional feelings likes, fear, anger, superstition. Its depends on the drivers and problems.

4. Volition time

Volition time is the final decision time. In this case driver apply the brakes or avoid the situations depending on the situations.


Uses of PIEV Theory

  1. PIEV Theory is used to understand concept of reaction time of driver.
  2. It is used for sight distance calculations.
  3. It is also used for highway geometric design.
  4. It is used to avoid some emergency situations like avoiding collision.

Factors Affecting Total Reaction Time in PIEV Theory

1. Travel speed

The reaction time of driver depends on travel speed of vehicle.

2. Characteristics of drivers

PIEV time depends upon the characteristics of drivers like physical characteristics and psychological characteristics.

3. Motive of the trip

Total reaction time or PIEV time is also depend on the motive of the trip. It is also important factor affecting PIEV Theory.

4. Type of Problems

PIEV time depends on the types of problems. In some cases driver avoid the situations and in some cases driver apply the brakes.

5. Alcohol Consumption

If driver is alcohol consumpted, then it will be very difficult for him to take any decision instantly. In that case reaction time of driver will be increased.

6. Other factors

  1. Skill of driver
  2. Environmental factors
  3. Brake reaction time
  4. Condition of driver
  5. Ability of driver
  6. Age and gender of driver
  7. Physical fitness of driver

FAQs :

What is the full form of PIEV in PIEV Theory?

PIEV means Perception, Intellection, Emotion and Volition respectively.

What is Perception time in PIEV Theory?

When driver instantly see any objects, so he/she receives the sensations by the eyes or ears and transmits the message to the brain through the nervous system & spinal cord. This time is called perception time.

What is Emotion time in PIEV Theory?

Emotion time of driver is the time elapsed during emotional feelings likes, fear, anger, superstition. Its depends on the drivers and problems.

What is total reaction time of driver in PIEV Theory?

Time taken between the instant object is visible to the driver and the instant brakes are effectively applied is called PIEV time or Total Reaction time of driver. For stopping sight distance it is 2.5 sec. and for overtaking sight distance it is 2 sec.

What is Intellection time in PIEV Theory?

When brain receives the message, it understands the situation, comparing the different thoughts and registering new sensations. This time is called intellection time.

What is Volition time in PIEV Theory?

Volition time is the final decision time. In this case driver apply the brakes or avoid the situations depending on the situations.

What are the factors affecting total reaction time of driver?

Various factors affecting total reaction time of driver are Travel speed, Characteristics of drivers, Motive of the trip, Type of Problems, Alcohol Consumption and Condition of drivers.

In PIEV theory, the time of taking decision to produce action is called ?

In PIEV theory, the time of taking decision to produce action is called Decision cycle or PIEV time or Reaction time of driver.


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